YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE TO READ >>
Head-Butting for Pleasure and Profit Head-butting is a much forgotten art. There's a reason for this: it kills brain cells faster than Miloš Zeman makes a fool of himself. ...

St Valentine Kneeling In Supplication
fShare
0
Pin It

The Catholic Church's attempt to paper over a popular pagan fertility rite with the clubbing death and decapitation of one of its own martyrs is the origin of this lovers' holiday.

As early as the fourth century B.C., the Romans engaged in an annual young man's rite of passage to the god Lupercus. The names of teenage women were placed in a box and drawn at random by adolescent men; thus, a man was assigned a woman companion, for their mutual entertainment and pleasure (often sexual), for the duration of a year, after which another lottery was staged. 

Determined to put an end to this eight-hundred-year-old practice, the early church fathers sought a "lovers'' saint to replace the deity Lupercus. They found a likely candidate in Valentine, a bishop who had been martyred some two hundred years earlier. In Rome in A.D. 270, Valentine had enraged the mad emperor Claudius II, who had issued an edict forbidding marriage. 

Claudius felt that married men made poor soldiers, because they were loath to leave their families for battle. The empire needed soldiers, so Claudius, never one to fear unpopularity, abolished marriage. 

Valentine, Bishop of Interamna, invited young lovers to come to him in secret, where he joined them in the sacrament of matrimony. Claudius learned of this "friend of lovers," and had the bishop brought to the palace. The emperor, impressed with the young priest's dignity and conviction, attempted to convert him to the Roman gods, to save him from otherwise certain execution. 

Valentine refused to renounce Christianity and imprudently attempted to convert the emperor. On February 24, 270, Valentine was clubbed, stoned, then beheaded. 

History also claims that while Valentine was in prison awaiting execution, he fell in love with the blind daughter of the jailer, Asterius. Through his unswerving faith, he miraculously restored her sight. He signed a farewell message to her "From Your Valentine," a phrase that would live long after its author died. 

From the Church's standpoint, Valentine seemed to be the ideal candidate to usurp the popularity of Lupercus. So in A.D. 496, a stern Pope Gelasius outlawed the mid-February Lupercian festival. But he was clever enough to retain the lottery, aware of Romans' love for games of chance. Now into the box that had once held the names of available and willing single women were placed the names of saints. 

Both men and women extracted slips of paper, and in the ensuing year they were expected to emulate the life of the saint whose name they had drawn. Admittedly, it was a different game, with different incentives; to expect a woman and draw a saint must have disappointed many a Roman male. 

The spiritual overseer of the entire affair was its patron saint, Valentine. With reluctance, and the passage of time, more and more Romans relinquished their pagan festival and replaced it with the Church's holy day. 

Valentine Cards 

Traditionally, mid-February was a Roman time to meet and court prospective mates. The Lupercian lottery (under penalty of mortal sin), Roman young men did institute the custom of offering women they admired and wished to court handwritten greetings of affection on February 14. The cards acquired St. Valentine's name: As Christianity spread, so did the Valentine's Day card. The earliest extant card was sent in 1415 by Charles, duke of Orleans, to his wife while he was a prisoner in the Tower of London. It is now in the British Museum. 

In the sixteenth century, St. Francis de Sales, bishop of Geneva, attempted to expunge the custom of cards and reinstate the lottery of saints' names. He felt that Christians had become wayward and needed models to emulate. However, this lottery was less successful and shorter-lived than Pope Gelasius's. 

And rather than disappearing, cards proliferated and became more decorative. Cupid, the naked cherub armed with arrows dipped in love potion, became a popular valentine image. He was associated with the holiday because in Roman mythology he is the son of Venus, goddess of love and beauty. 

By the seventeenth century, handmade cards were oversized and elaborate, while store-bought ones were smaller and costly. In 1797, a British publisher issued "The Young Man's Valentine Writer," which contained scores of suggested sentimental verses for the young lover unable to compose his own. 

Printers had already begun producing a limited number of cards with verses and sketches, called "mechanical valentines," and a reduction in postal rates in the next century ushered in the less personal but easier practice of mailing valentines. 

That, in turn, made it possible for the first time to exchange cards anonymously, which is taken as the reason for the sudden appearance of racy verse in an era otherwise prudishly Victorian. 

The burgeoning number of obscene valentines caused several countries to ban the practice of exchanging cards. In Chicago, for instance, late in the nineteenth century, the post office rejected some twenty-five thousand cards on the ground that they were not fit to be carried through the U.S. mail. 

The first American publisher of valentines was printer and artist Esther Howland. Her elaborate lace cards of the 1870's cost from five to ten dollars, with some selling for as much as thirty-five dollars. Since that time, the valentine card business has flourished. With the exception of Christmas, Americans exchange more cards on Valentine's Day than at any other time of the year...." 


The above stories are quoted from 'Panati's Extraordinary Origins'. 

Talking Meat - a short story by Terry Bisson
Terry Bisson Talking Meat

Imagine if you will… the leader of the Fifth Invader Force speaking to his Commander in Chief…  [ ... ]

A Day in the Life of a Prague Film Extra
John Goldman Outlander filming in Prague at the Strahov Monastery

I'm sure you're just dying to know all about my evening as an extra a Hollywood film currently shoot [ ... ]

Dragon Boating: Outdoor Fun Or Water Torture?
Rashidah Rehmat Catch all the action at the Dragon Boat Festival (photo courtesy of YourSingapore)

Dragon Boating!! Never in my wildest dream did I imagine that I would take up this water sport!!

A visit to The Ucho
D.A. Blyler Patrons of The Ucho (foto:www.partyplzen.cz)

Bolevecká is the name of the residence hall where I live. The bar inside is known as The Ucho. Ucho [ ... ]

Above the Clouds: Josh Wink
Jeffree Benet Josh Wink

In the faceless world of dance music, Josh Wink is one of those rarified superstars. 

Cuba: The Land for Lovers
Glen Emery Cuba: The Land for Lovers

Cuba, a small island country, has many interesting historical claims to fame.

PARANORMAL: Signs of Satan's involvement in 911?
News Desk Signs of Satan's involvement in 911?

The face of Satan seems to eerily appear in the smoke billowing from the blasted World Trade Center [ ... ]

Why Czech racism is different from Western racism
Christopher Lord Racism in the Czech Republic

We who grew up in the liberal, post-Vietnam West approach the racism of the Czechs [ ... ]

Read more...

Name Day/Svatek

Yesterday : Monika Today : Emil Tomorrow : Vladimír After tomorrow : Jana

Our Mission

1. To make you think
If you make people think they're thinking, they'll love you. If you really make them think, they'll hate you.
2. To tell the world the truth
When you only tell the truth, you start earning trust, as journalists, our mission is to tell the truth.
3. To make you laugh
We want to make you laugh, chuckle, smirk, grin or smile as we try to find the upside of life in the face of all the evil around us.

All cheap e liquid have fancy packagings.The quality of cheap e liquid is a concern,so it's important to choose reputable,UK made cheap e liquid.UK vape online bring lots of the cheap e liquid suppliers,all cheap e liquid is safe,made in UK.Wholesale cheap e liquid .UK vape online bring lots of the cheap e liquid suppliers,all cheap e liquid suppliers can offer outstanding flavors cheap e liquid.Starting at just $0.99, the flavours of cheap e liquid have fruits,desserts,and candy.Famous cheap e liquid wholesale.

The Power Flex yoga pant from 90 Degree by Reflex is the ideal combination of fashion, function, and performance. Our fabric is designed to contour perfectly to your body, giving you a streamlined look. We've created the perfect fabric at the perfect https://www.amazon.com/90-Degree-Reflex-Womens-Power/dp/B00IDHFYVM These Power Flex Pants are perfect for yoga, pilates, running, or any type of exercise or fitness-related activities. You can also go from the gym to running errands - all while being comfortable and stylish. Pairs well with our famous Power Flex Tan.

Bola24 adalah agen bola sbobet indonesia terpercaya

Situs bandarq indoqq dan aduq online terbaik di Indonesia